PROOF THAT HORUS WAS A SUN GOD, FROM PRIMARY SOURCES AND THE WORKS OF HIGHLY CREDENTIALED AUTHORITIES
As is the case with many gods in other parts of the world, several Egyptian gods (and goddesses) possess solar attributes, essentially making them sun gods. These Egyptian sun gods included not only the commonly known Ra or Re, but also Osiris and Horus, among others. This fact of Horus as a sun god was confirmed five centuries before the common era by the Greek historian Herodotus (2.144, 156), when he equated Osiris with the Greek god Dionysus and Horus with the Greek sun god Apollo: “In Egyptian, Apollo is Horus, Demeter is Isis, Artemis is Bubastis….”
In the first century BCE, the Greek writer Diodorus Siculus described Osiris as the sun, while his sister-wife, Isis, is the moon:
Now when the ancient Egyptians, awestruck and wondering, turned their eyes to the heavens, they concluded that two gods, the sun and the moon, were primeval and eternal: they called the former Osiris, the latter Isis….
The ancient writer Porphyry (c. 235-c. 305 AD/CE) related (according to early Catholic Church father/historian Eusebius):
But the fiery power of [the sun’s] revolving and circling motion whereby he ripens the crops, is called Dionysus… And whereas he revolves round the cosmical seasons [Grk. horas] and is the maker of “times and tides,” the sun is on this account called Horus.
In my book Suns of God (112), I discuss the equation of Horus with Apollo and the sun by ancient writer Macrobius (4th cent. AD/CE):
The newborn sun god about whom he writes is Horus, whom Macrobius equates with Dionysus. Both Dionysus and Apollo are identified with Horus, as is further evidence by the fact that Apollo and Horus were represented by the hawk. Macrobius too equates Apollo with Horus…
As concerns primary sources, in Christ in Egypt (47), I write (47):
In ancient Egyptian writings such as the Pyramid Texts, in which he is called the “Lord of the Sky,” along with other solar epithets such as “He Whose Face is Seen,” “He Whose Hair is Parted,” and “He Whose Two Plumes are Long,” Horus’s function as a sun god or aspect of the sun is repeatedly emphasized, although this singularly pertinent fact is seldom found in encyclopedias and textbooks, leaving us to wonder why he would be thus diminished. In the Coffin Texts as well is Horus’s role as (morning) sun god made clear, such as in the following elegantly rendered scripture from CT [Coffin Text] Sp. 255:
“…I will appear as Horus who ascends in gold from upon the lips of the horizon…”
In CT Sp. 326, Horus is even called “Lord of the sunlight.”
Concerning the nature of certain Egyptian gods, Dr. James P. Allen, Curator of Egyptian Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, remarks:
…Ruling over the universe by day, the Sun was identified with Horus, the god of kingship; at sunset he was seen as Atum, the oldest of all gods. The Sun’s daily movement through the sky was viewed as a journey from birth to death, and his rebirth at dawn was made possible through Osiris, the force of new life… …In the middle of the night the Sun merged with Osiris’s body; through this union, the Sun received the power of new life while Osiris was reborn in the Sun.
As we can see, these various gods are often interchangeable, and their attributes and stories may overlap. As stated by Egyptologist Dr. Erik Hornung:
Many Egyptian gods can be the sun god, especially Re, Atum, Amun, and manifestations of Horus. Even Osiris appears as the night form of the sun god in the New Kingdom. It is often not defined which particular sun god is meant in a given instance.
In this regard, I also relate in CIE (45):
…Horus of the Horizon or Horakhty is a solar deity and the morning sun, part of the combined Re-Horakhty, whose name Egyptologist Dr. Rudolf Anthes renders, “Re, the heavenly Horus of the horizon in which he appears as the sun..” As Egyptologist Sir Dr. Gaston Maspero remarks:
Horus the Sun, and Ra, the Sun-God of Heliopolis, had so permeated each other that none could say where the one began and the other ended…
Once more, Maspero says:
When the celestial Horus was confounded with Ra, and became the sun…he naturally also became the sun of the two horizons, the sun by day, and the sun by night.
Hieroglyph representing either Horus or Ra in his Sun Disk. (Budge, ‘An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary,’ cxiv)
Hieroglyph representing either Horus or Ra in his Sun Disk. (Budge, ‘An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary,’ cxiv)
Egyptologist Dr. Allen further discusses Horus’s solar attributes:
Horus was the power of kingship. To the Egyptians this was as much a force of nature as those embodied in the other gods. It was manifest in two natural phenomena: the sun, the most powerful force in nature; and the pharaoh, the most powerful force in human society. Horus’s role as the king of nature is probably the origin of his name: hrw seems to mean “the one above” or “the one far off”… This is apparently a reference to the sun, which is “above” and “far off” in the sky, like the falcon with which Horus is regularly associated…
Illustrating certain motifs including the sun god’s movement through the night and day, Sir Dr. E.A. Wallis Budge (1857–1934), noted English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works, remarks:
The Sun has countless names, Ptah, Tmu, Ra, Horus, Khnemu, Sebek, Amen, etc.; and some of them, such as Osiris and Seker, are names of the Sun after he has set, or, in mythological language, has died and been buried…. All gods, as such, were absolutely equal in their might and in their divinity; but, mythologically, Osiris might be said to be slain by his brother Set, the personification of Night, who, in his turn, was overthrown by Horus (the rising sun), the heir of Osiris.
As can be seen, both Osiris and Horus are essentially sun gods, who both also battle with the “Prince of Darkness,” the god Set or Seth. Summarizing, Egyptologist Dr. Edmund Meltzer states:
Horus the falcon was predominantly a sky god AND a sun god.
There is much, much more to this subject, including a 39-page chapter “Horus, Sun of God” in my book Christ in Egypt. You will not get this important information from all the critics out there who are clearly not experts on this subject, as this one issue so roundly demonstrates. If you see this basic error, you would not be remiss in clicking off the page since the rest will likely be just as erroneous.
Suns of God:
Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled
Why is there no mention of Jesus Christ by historians of his time?
What is the Mysterious Brotherhood?
What do Krishna, Buddha and Christ have in common?
Picking up where the bestselling and controversial The Christ Conspiracyleaves off, Suns of God leads the reader through an electrifying exploration of the origin and meaning of the world’s religions and popular gods. Over the past several centuries, the Big Three spiritual leaders have been the Lords Christ, Krishna and Buddha, whose stories and teachings are curiously and confoundingly similar to each other. The tale of a miraculously born redeemer who overcomes heroic challenges, teaches ethics and morality, performs marvels and wonders, acquires disciples and is famed far and wide, to be persecuted, killed and reborn, is not unique but a global phenomenon recurring in a wide variety of cultures long before the Christian era.
Are Krishna, Buddha and Christ “real people” or myths?
These godmen were not “historical” people who all “walked the earth” but mythical characters of the famous “mysteries.” A major element of the secret, international brotherhood, these mysteries extend back thousands of years and are found worldwide, reflecting an ancient tradition steeped in awe and intrigue. The reasons for this religious development are unveiled in this in-depth analysis containing fascinating and original research based on evidence both modern and ancient, captivating information kept secret and hidden for ages!
“Suns of God may be the most complete review of the history of religion ever composed in a single volume.”
Suns of God contains 595 pages, including an extensive index and bibliography citing over 250 books and articles. It also has 46 pages of illustrations, which comprise over 100 separate images.
Find out the true origins of religion–
Why were so many ancient gods born on December 25th, the winter solstice?
The December 25th birthday of the sun god is a common story worldwide, dating back at least 12,000 years, as reflected in winter solstice scenes recorded in caves. Around the world beginning thousands of years ago, people have celebrated the birth of the god “Sol” (Sun) to the “Queen of Heaven,” the “Celestial Virgin.” The winter solstice has been celebrated in many places, from China to the Americas.
Ancient Greeks celebrated the birthday of Hercules and Dionysus on this date of December 25th. The “Christmas” festival was celebrated at Athens and was called “the Lenaea,” during which time, apparently, “the death and rebirth of the harvest infant Dionysus were similarly dramatized.” This Lenaea festival is depicted in an Aurignacian cave painting in Spain (34,000-23,000 Before Present), with a “young Dionysus with huge genitals,” standing naked in the middle of “nine dancing women.” The Romans celebrated the famed festival of “Saturnalia” at this time.
The Greco-Syrian sun god Adonis was also born on December 25th, a festival “spoken of by Tertullian, Jerome, and other Fathers of the Church, who inform us that the ceremonies took place in a cave, and that the cave in which they celebrated his mysteries in Bethlehem, was that in which Christ Jesus was born.”
What’s with all the “Virgin” Mothers of Gods and Heroes?
The list of pre-Christian gods, heroes, kings and queens who were said to have been “born of a virgin” or miraculously born includes the following:
- Egyptian gods Ra and Apis
- Egyptian queen Hetshepsut
- Pharoah Amenophis III
- Persian “prophet” Zoroaster
- Melchizedek, biblical High Priest and King of Salem
- Persian king Cyrus
- Plato, “the divine” and “son of Apollo”
- Julius Caesar
- Apollonius of Tyana, Greek sage
- Taliesin, Merlin and Llew Llaw of the British Isles
- Chinese philosophers Fohi and Lao-Kium
Buddha and Jesus–Are They the Same?
Buddha’s virgin mother, Maya, was impregnated by the “Holy Spirit,” while a “heavenly messenger” informed her that she would bear “a son of the highest kings.”
Buddha was said to have had five favorite disciples who left their former teacher to follow him, just as was Jesus, whose initial five disciples left John the Baptist to follow him.
Buddha is further portrayed as having 12 disciples, the same as Jesus.
Buddha is also depicted as speaking with “two buddhas who had preceded him,” a motif reminiscent of Jesus conversing with Moses and Elijah.
While Buddha fasts and prays in solitude in the desert, he is tempted by the Prince of Darkness, Mara, whose overtures of wealth and glory the sage resists.
Like Jesus, Buddha is portrayed as walking on water, while one of Buddha’s disciples also is able to walk on water at his instruction.
Like Jesus, Buddha exhorts his disciples to “hide their good deeds, and confess their sins before the world.” Furthermore, Buddha is portrayed as administering baptism for the remission of “sin.”
Buddha’s teachings embraced the brotherhood of men, the giving of charity to all, including adversaries, and “pity or love for one’s neighbor.”
Buddha was called “the Lion of the Tribe of Sakya, the King of Righteousness, the Great Physician, the God among Gods, the Only Begotten, the Word, the All-wise, the Way, the Truth, the Life, the Intercessor, the Prince of Peace, the Good Shepherd, the Light of the World, the Anointed, the Christ, the Messiah, the Saviour of the World, the Way of Life and Immortality.”
Why are so many stories, including the Transfiguration, the Descent into Hell and the Ascension, found in the myths of other gods besides Jesus?
Did you know that the Catholic Church has admitted for centuries that there are important similarities between Buddhism and Christianity?
In its article on “Buddhism,” the Catholic Church’s Encyclopedia outlines some of the similarities between the Buddhist and Catholic religions, but it claims that Catholicism was first and that the Buddhist correlations are “accretions” copied from the Christian faith!
The Tibetan Buddhist religion has a “Pope” or “infallible head” called the Dalai Lama
There are “grades of clergy corresponding to bishop and priest”
The Buddhist religion includes “the cross, mitre, dalmatic, cope, censer, holy water, etc.”
What else has the Church been hiding from you?